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Frontotemporal Dementia (FTD)

Frontotemporal dementia, which discusses a group of dementias, arises from inherited or spontaneous disorders (occurring for unknown reasons) that cause degeneration of the frontal and sometimes temporal lobe. You can recover from such types of diseases with the help of Kentucky Case Management.

  • Personality, behavior, and language are more affected and memoryless affected than in Alzheimer’s disease.
  • Doctors base their diagnosis on symptoms and neurological test results and use imaging to assess brain damage.
  • Cure aims to manage the symptoms.

Dementia is a slow and progressive decline in cognitive function with the impaired memory system, thinking, judgment, and learning. Dementia is distinguished from delirium, characterized by the inability to pay attention, disorientation, inability to think visibly, and fluctuations in the level of alertness.

  • Dementia primarily affects memory, while delirium primarily affects attention.
  • Dementia usually begins gradually and does not have a specific starting point. Confusion syndrome starts suddenly and usually has a specific starting point.

About 1 in 10 cases of dementia is frontotemporal dementia. Dementia usually develops in people younger than 65 years old. Men and women are affected equally.

Frontotemporal dementia tends to be inherited. About half of the reasons for frontotemporal dementia are hereditary.

Brain cells produce irregular types or quantities of a protein called tau.

The frontal and temporal lobes (atrophy) are diminished, and the nerve cells are destroyed. These areas of the brain are usually linked with personality and behavior.

There are several types of frontotemporal dementia.

Symptoms

Frontotemporal dementias are progressive, but the speed of progression to generalized dementia varies.

These dementias affect personality, behavior, and language more and affect memory less than Alzheimer’s disease. People with frontotemporal dementia still have difficulty with abstract thinking, attention, and memory. They have difficulty formalizing ideas and establishing actions in the right order (sequencing). They are easily distracted. However, they remain aware of the time, date, and place and can perform daily tasks.

In some people, the muscles are affected. They can weaken and waste away (atrophy). The muscles of the skull and neck are affected, making it difficult to swallow, chew, and speak. They can inhale (suck) food, occasionally causing aspiration pneumonia.

Different kinds of symptoms develop depending on which area of ​​the frontal or temporal lobe is affected. To know :

  • Personality and behavior changes
  • Problems with language

People can have more than one type of symptom, especially as dementia progresses.

Personality And Behavior Changes

Few people with frontotemporal dementia become uninhibited, resulting in increasingly inappropriate behavior. They can speak rudely. Their interest in sex may increase abnormally.

The behavior can become impulsive and compulsive. They can repeat the same act over and over again. They can go to the same place every day. They can pick up and handle objects by chance and put objects in their mouths. They may suck or smack their lips. They may overeat or eat only one kind of food.

People with dementia neglect their hygiene.

Problems With Language

Most people with frontotemporal dementia have trouble finding their words. They have increased difficulty using and understanding language ( aphasia ). For some, speaking is physically difficult ( dysarthria ). Paying attention is very difficult. For a few people, language problems are the only symptom for ten years or more. For other people, other symptoms seem within a few years.

Some people cannot understand the language but speak fluently, although what they say does not mean anything. Others have difficulty naming objects (anomie) and identifying faces (prosopagnosia).

As dementia movements, people speak less and less and repeat what they or others say. They finally stop talking.

Diagnostic

  • Physical examination
  • Computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging

Doctors need to determine if a person has dementia and, if so if it is frontotemporal dementia.

Finding of dementia

A finding of dementia is based on the following:

  • Symptoms that are identified by asking questions of the person, family members, or other caregivers
  • The results of a clinical examination, including a neurological examination
  • The results of a mental state test
  • The results of additional tests, such as computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)

Family members may need to give information about symptoms, as those affected may not be aware of their symptoms.

Of mental status tests, consisting of simple questions and tasks, help doctors determine whether people with dementia.

Sometimes a more detailed examination (called a neuropsychological test) is necessary. This exam analyzes all cognitive functions, including mood, and generally lasts 1 to 3 hours. This exam helps doctors distinguish dementia from other conditions that can cause similar symptoms, such as memory impairment associated with aging, mild cognitive impairment, and depression.

Information from the above sources will usually help doctors rule out delirium as the cause of symptoms ( Comparison of Confusion Syndrome and Dementia ). This is an essential step because delirium, unlike dementia, can be corrected if treated quickly.

Finding Of Frontotemporal Dementia

The finding of frontotemporal dementia is based on typical symptoms, including their development.

Computed tomography scan (CT) and(MRI) magnetic resonance imaging are done to conclude which parts of the brain are affected and to what extent and rule out other possible causes (such as brain tumors, abscesses, or strokes ). However, CT or MRI may not detect changes characteristic of frontotemporal dementia until late in the course of the disease. A positron emission tomography can help differentiate frontotemporal dementia from Alzheimer’s disease.

Treatment

  • Symptom relief
  • Support measures

There is no exact treatment for frontotemporal dementia.

Generally, treatment focuses on:

  • Symptom management
  • Assistance

For example, if compulsive actions are a problem, antipsychotics can be used. Speech therapy sessions can help people with their language problems.

Security And Assistance Measures

Creating a safe and supportive situation can be very helpful (see Creating a Beneficial Environment for People With Dementia ).

Generally, the environment should be bright, cheerful, safe, stable, and designed to facilitate orientation. Stimulation, such as radio or television, is helpful, but over-stimulation should be avoided.

A structured environment and the implementation of routines allow people with frontotemporal dementia to orient themselves and feel safe, providing a sense of stability. Any changes in the environment, routines, or caregivers should be clear and explained to people.

Following a daily routine for tasks like washing, eating, and going to bed can help people with frontotemporal dementia remember. Following a regular bedtime routine can help them sleep better.

Regular activities can help people feel independent and focus their attention on useful or enjoyable tasks. These activities should include physical and mental activities. Activities should be broken down into smaller parts or simplified as dementia worsens.

Caregivers

The care of people with dementia is stressful and demanding, and caregivers can become down and exhausted, often ignoring their own mental and physical health. The resulting measures may be helpful to caregivers ( Care of the caregiver ):

  • Learn to understand and meet the needs of people with dementia and what to expect of them: Caregivers can obtain this information from nurses, social workers, organizations, and from printed or published materials in line.
  • Seek help when needed: Caregivers can talk to social workers (especially those at the local hospital) about suitable help options, such as outpatient programs, home visits for DE nurses, part-time or full-time home help and home help. Psychological help and support groups can also be helpful.
  • Self-protection: the caregiver must take care of his health. He must not stop seeing his friends, stop practicing his hobbies and activities.

Terminal Phase Problems

Before people with frontotemporal dementia are incapacitated, decisions must be made about medical care, and financial and legal agreements must be made. These provisions are called advance directives. People must designate a legally authorized person to make treatment decisions on their behalf (power of attorney for care). They should discuss their care wishes with this person and their doctor. These issues need to be addressed thoroughly before it is necessary to make these decisions.

At an advanced stage of frontotemporal dementia, treatment should improve the person’s comfort and not prolong their life.

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